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Principle and application of ultrasonic extraction

Principle and application of ultrasonic extraction

Ultrasonic extraction instrument is also called ultrasonic auxiliary extraction instrument and ultrasonic extraction instrument. It uses the strong cavitation effect, disturbance effect, high heating speed, crushing and stirring effect and other multi-level effects produced by ultrasonic radiation pressure to increase the frequency and speed of material molecular motion, increase the permeability of the solvent, and accelerate the entry of target components into the solvent. Promote the extraction process.

The ultrasonic extractor generates rapid mechanical vibration waves through an ultrasonic transducer. The use of ultrasonic energy enhances the uniformity of ultrasonic action, increases the sound intensity, makes the boundary layer of the particles thin, the outer surface falls off, the particles are broken, and the ultrasonic breaks the outer cell wall, so that the material in the tissue cell wall is freely dissolved, and The effective ingredients in the substance are dissolved in the solvent, reducing the force between the target extract and the sample matrix, so as to achieve solid-liquid extraction and separation and improve the extraction rate of the effective ingredients.

Application analysis of ultrasonic extractor in the medical field:

(1) Accelerate the movement of media particles. When ultrasonic waves propagate in a continuous medium (such as water) with a frequency greater than 20khz, according to the Huygens wave principle, medium particles (including particles of important active ingredients of medicinal materials) will move in the wavefront of the propagation, so that the motion of the medium particles is huge Acceleration and kinetic energy. Generally speaking, the acceleration of a particle can be more than two thousand times the acceleration of gravity. Because ultrasonic waves can act on the active ingredients of Chinese medicine through the medium particles, huge acceleration and kinetic energy can be obtained, and it can quickly escape the Chinese medicine matrix and free in the water.

(2) Cavitation. The propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid media produces a special "cavitation effect". The "cavitation effect" continuously generates a large number of micro-cavitations, the internal pressure reaches thousands of atmospheres, and the "blasting" continuously generates powerful micro-shock waves on the Chinese herbal medicines, so that the components of the Chinese herbal medicines escape through the "bombardment", and make the components that do not belong to the plant structure. The matrix of Chinese herbal medicine is constantly peeling off, and the active ingredients of the medicine are continuously separated. Speed ​​up the extraction of plant active ingredients.

(3) The homogenization of the ultrasonic vibration makes all points in the sample medium have the same effect, making the extraction of the entire sample more uniform. In summary, under the action of the ultrasonic field, the effective substances in traditional Chinese medicine not only obtain their own huge acceleration and kinetic energy in the form of medium particles, but also obtain a strong external force impact through the "cavitation effect", making them completely separated.